Several WLAN vendors offer layer 7, or application layer, firewalls and quality of service tools. The feature has different names depending on the vendor (Application Visibility and Control, Layer 7 Visibility, AppRF, etc.), but they all try to do the same thing. These tools work at the application layer to identify packets for processing through firewall or QoS rules, which is very useful in today’s world where so many applications are served over the Internet on ports 80 and 443. Traditional stateful firewalls aren’t much use when you want to say, ratelimit Netflix traffic.
At first, you may be tempted to identify all the applications commonly used on your WLAN and assign each of them to a QoS queue. Mission-critical applications get higher priority while social networks and video streaming services are deprioritized. Mark everything!
However, like other features of enterprise gear, while it’s tempting to turn it on and go nuts, you should use restraint, and here’s why: Layer 7 traffic analysis can be very CPU intensive, so the more layer 7 rules in your ACL’s, the more work the AP or controller must do to enforce them. That can result in a performance penalty during high traffic periods. At least one WLAN vendor tacitly acknowledges this by providing an undocumented “Turbo Mode” that will “disable QoS policies and improve Wi-Fi performance.”
Also keep in mind that layer 7 traffic analysis is a bit more of an art than the hard science of stateful packet inspection. Traffic flows are compared to vendor proprietary signatures for proper identification, and that’s not always 100% reliable. An application update or backend infrastructure change may require the development of a new signature for proper identification. WLAN vendors need to provide customers with regular updates to their application signature databases to ensure proper identification is occurring.
With that aside, what are some good uses of layer 7 firewalls and QoS?
Background Data Hogs
RF is a shared medium and as such it is often a bottleneck in busy networks. Software update utilities that run in the background on client machines can be problematic when there are a lot of stations sharing a channel. These applications like to all run at the same time, triggered by events like shifting from a 4G connection to Wi-Fi or right after a machine boots up.
In a school environment, this could happen during first period when everyone pulls out their Chromebook and they all automatically check for updates in the background, while at the same time students’ iPhones notice the Wi-Fi connection and decide now is the time to download that massive iOS update. The WLAN can slow to a crawl without any end-user interaction other than walking in the door.
I think this is where layer 7 QoS shines. By marking Apple Software Update and Chrome OS update packets for the background queue (AC_BK), for example, other applications that users are interacting with in the foreground of their clients take priority on the network. Of course, you will customize these rules to your IT environment. A Microsoft shop will want to do this with traffic to their WSUS server, etc. If you have a lot of iOS clients, iCloud traffic is one to look out for. Dropbox might be a big one too. You may want to consider deprioritizing antivirus updates as well, as these applications sometimes update quite frequently in the background.
Chrome and Chrome OS Updates
Incidentally, despite the overwhelming popularity of Chrome OS in K12, I am unaware of any vendor that provides application signatures for Chrome OS updates. If you can define custom applications within your WLAN (I know that Aerohive and Meraki can do this), use these URL’s to identify Chrome OS updates (these also cover Chrome web browser autoupdates for Windows/Mac/Linux):
Or, if you are really strapped for throughput, use firewall rules to block these applications altogether on the guest network, for example. If WAN throughput is really limited you may need to consider end-to-end QoS all the way to your WAN circuit. Most enterprise WLAN gear can translate WMM QoS markings to 802.1p or DiffServ markings on the ethernet network, but remember to configure QoS on every networking device between the AP and WAN. Do packet captures to confirm your configuration is working.
Is it standardized testing season and you are worried that students’ use of Pandora and Netflix is affecting your WLAN performance? No need to go to superiors or committees and ask to have them blocked. That’s a bit draconian anyway. Deprioritize those applications with layer 7 QoS rules.
Malicious and Illegal Applications
Stop bad traffic at the AP or controller before it gets to your content filter. This provides an extra layer of filtering and reduces the traffic the content filter must process. If you don’t enforce station isolation, it can also can block some LAN attacks that would otherwise not reach your content filter. At school, peer-to-peer file sharing applications like Bittorrent, proxy applications, Tor, and shady VPN services are all good candidates layer 7 firewall blocking. Just make sure your firewall rules comply with organizational policy.
RF design is the most important factor in meeting the needs of voice-over-Wi-Fi applications, and properly configuring QoS for the enterprise VoIP system has always been important as well. But now we’re seeing users making VoWiFi calls via their cellular carrier. Layer 7 traffic analysis can be used to identify this new traffic and push it to the proper WMM queue (AC_VO).
Going forward these tools might prove less effective as more and more network traffic is encrypted by default. In fact, all HTTP/2 traffic will be encrypted. The companies that develop the application signatures used by WLAN vendors have a challenge to do more with less. Our dependence on these products is increasing while at the same time it will become more difficult to identify application traffic on the network.